Thailand - NORTHERN Mountains 北部山区

Doi Inthanon
Part of the Himalayan mountain range, Doi Inthanon in Chiang Mai province is Thailand’s tallest peak at 2,565 meters. The Park covers an area of 482 sqm. Visit during cooler December to February, affording a chance to see the blossoming of Siamese sakura flowers.

Doi Chiang Dao
Chiang Dao Hill is in Chiang Dao Wildlife Reserve in Chiang Mai and towers 2,175 meters. It is part of a 250 million year-old limestone massif located less than 40 km south of the border with Myanmar (Burma) at the end of the Thai highlands. At the top of the hill, tourists can enjoy a picturesque landscape, ranging from Talay Mok, Doi Sam Pee Nong, Doi Chiang Dao mountain range, to the far-away Doi Inthanon.

Phu Chi Fa
A famous destination in northern Chiang Rai, especially during winter, visitors try to reach its cliff. It offers spectacular views of the valley and sea of mist at sunrise, abundant flowers, and cool weather. Stay overnight at Ban Rom Fa Thong and Ban Rom Fa Thai.

Doi Ang Khang
Doi Ang Khang is in Chiang Mai-Fang (accessed by a steep, zigzagging, asphalt road, use an experienced driver). The local truck (Song Thaeo) from Mae Kha Market offers service to the
splendid mountain. It is cool all year. Best from December to January, when much of the area is frosty.

Doi Suthep
Covering a 262 square km verdant forest and mountain ranges in Chiang Mai, attractions include: Huai Kaew Waterfall and Kru Ba Sri Wichai monument. Among the major hills: Doi Buak Ha, Doi Pui, and Doi Suthep (its peak is the location of a sacred Wat Phra That Di Suthep with its golden pagoda that shines in the sun).

Phu Soi Dao
The National Park is 58,750 acres and is cool all year (2,102 meters). The park borders Laos to the far east, and is home to several species of wild flowers, with several attractions that include: a savanna field situated within the dense pine trees, and the five-tier Phu Soi Dao waterfall near the park office. A four-hour hike up the trail brings you to Larn Paa Son. Visitors should stop at Sai Tip waterfall to admire the moss and lichen covered cliff. Visitors can reach Phu Soi dao from Phitsanulok (154 km). Six public buses depart from Phitsanulok.

清迈茵他侬山是喜马拉雅山脉的一部分,高达2,565米,是泰国最高 峰。茵他侬国家公园占 482.4平方公里,爱好凉爽气候的旅游者应 挑选十二月至次年二月的凉季前来参观,这个季节还有机会欣赏朵朵 樱花。

清道(清道山)位于清迈清道野生动物保护区,高达2175米(第三名)。 这座山脉是石灰岩山体的一部分,距今已经有2.5亿年历史。山脉位 于高地尾部,距离缅甸南部边境不到40公里。在山顶平原上,游客可以欣赏如诗如画的风景,包括塔莱莫(雾海)、叁批弄山、清道山,以及遥远的茵他侬山。


安康山位于清迈,那里道路崎岖陡峭,宛如虬须,因此需要经验丰富的司机才能到达,Mae KHA市场的本地货车(双条车)提供前往安康山的服务。这个地方一年如春,凉爽宜人,最好的旅游时间是十二月至次年一月,大部分地区出现霜冻。


普岁道国家公园占地58750英亩,一年四季气候凉爽(2102米)。公园东部毗邻老挝,并且是一些野花品种的发源地。这里的迷人之处有五层的普岁道山瀑布,位于茂密松树林内的瀑布,临近公园的办公室。四小时登山旅程带您到达Larn Paa Son,您可以在Sai Tip瀑布停下来 欣赏遍布苔藓与地衣的绝壁悬崖,那里安排了晚间住宿,解决您的后 顾之忧。有六两大巴从彭世洛到达普岁道(154公里)。

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How Gold is Formed

The ancient Aztecs believed gold to be ―the sweat of the sun‖. Though the mystery of how gold is formed still hasn't been fully unraveled yet, that seems to be a highly accurate metaphor. The most common theory being that gold, like heaviest metals, is forged inside stars through a process called nuclear fusion.

In the beginning, following the Big Bang, hydrogen and helium were formed. Through hundreds of millions of years of the stars using lighter elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as fuel to light nuclear fires, they were forced to evolve to heavier elements, working their way through the periodic table towards iron. Finally, as they burnt silicon to make iron, they exploded as a supernova, releasing as much energy in one moment as all the other stars in that galaxy put together. It was during that cataclysmic explosion that atoms of gold were manufactured for the first time, hurled into the Universe and later condensed into our solar system and the Earth.

As the earth was molten at the time of its formation, almost all of the gold present on Earth sank to the core. It is thought that most of the gold that is present today in the earth's crust and mantle was delivered there when a disproportionately large number of asteroids possibly collided with the early terrestrial planets in the inner Solar System about four billion years ago.

Gold is found in ore inside rocks formed from the Precambrian time and typically occurs as a native metal. It is almost always mixed with silver. Often you will find gold mixed with quartz or sulfide minerals, more commonly known as ―fool's gold‖. Small flakes of gold that wind their way through
streams and rivers can be welded into nuggets by water movement.

Another recent study claims earthquakes cause additional stores of this resource to be released. We all know when an earthquake strikes, it travels along fault lines. Around ten kilometers below the
surface the water travels under great pressure and at extremely high temperatures. The flowing vapors
fill small cracks and fissures with a mix of carbon dioxide, silica, and gold. When the fault jog suddenly widens, a steam flash forces silica (which forms the quartz) and gold out of the fluids and onto nearby surfaces. Apparently, the world's oceans are a veritable gold mine as well.

It is estimated that about 2/3 of the world's gold has been mined from South Africa alone. Over 90% of the world's gold has been mined since the California gold rush and Fort Knox and the Fed combined hold only 11 tonnes of gold in reserve. So as a limited valuable commodity that cannot be
printed at will, it makes sense to attain as much as possible before the price skyrockets.

Source of Information : Ask About Gold By Michael Ruge
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The Discovery of Gold

Gold has had the power to enrich communities since its discovery. It was 1848, the war with Mexico was over and Johann Sutter had big plans to build a town of his own. He began by constructing a sawmill meant to handle the large amount of lumber that would be required. He anticipated Suttersville would accommodate a large number of the settlers expected to stream through the Sierra's at any time, now that the animosities had subsided.

While working on the mill's final details, James W. Marshall first discovered the gold flakes that would come to have a huge impact on many. Sutter, no fool, tried to keep the discovery a secret, fearing the derailment of his dreams. Yet there was no holding back the force of greed and rumours that quickly spread. Ironically, Mexico had relinquished its rights to California and all the land north of the Rio Grande just days before the shiny substance was found floating in the South Fork of the American river. No one could have predicted the influx of some 80,000 immigrants that poured into California during 1849.

The official confirmation announcement sparked international interest and during the 1850's miners began immigrating from all over the world; the ―forty-niners‖ had arrived. Although the journey was arduous and fraught with danger, historians estimate the final number of people seeking to strike it rich to be around 300,000. It is thought that the value of the gold garnered from the region exceeded tens of billions of dollars. Most of the searchers went home empty handed yet a select few became millionaires. Many saw the value in California's farmland and chose to stay on and make it their new home.

At first, the positive effects of gold on California's cities weren't noticeable. As Sutter had feared, his plans were ruined, the erection plans for Suttersville were forced to the background, squatters stole his land and cattle and anyone physically capable abandoned his work to frantically search for gold. Numerous ghost towns resulted from the frenzied abandonment of citizens, dreaming of finding their share of gold nuggets, rumored to be plentiful. Hundreds of arriving ships bearing supplies were abandoned by the crew who joined the feverish search.

Native Americans were attacked and pushed off their land and the various methods the gold-seekers
employed caused severe environmental damage. Once gold became harder to find, the American miners organized attacks on foreigners in an effort to reap all of the profits. However, once all of the hubbub died down it became apparent that gold had ―rushed‖ California from infancy to a full-blown state. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of a few hundred to a boom-town of 36,000 by 1852.

Many other cities emerged throughout California and progress came to town. Roads, churches, and schools were built. Transportation grew to include steamships and the railroad. Technological
advances were made and agriculture and ranching grew to meet the needs of the expanding state. Laws were implemented, claims were staked. A governor was chosen and a constitution was written. This all happened far faster than if the gold rush had not been realized.

Of course, it was the worldwide financial prosperity and economic stability which the bright substance created that began our love affair with gold, which is still going strong tod

Source of Information : Ask About Gold By Michael Ruge
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The Creation of Gold

The story of gold is a fascinating tale of extraterrestrial creation like no other. Mainly because the likely hood of it happening again close enough for us to extract it, yet far away
enough for it not to cause damage to our planet is unlikely. It only happens after millions of years of the right conditions within a star, causing chemical reactions that have never been witnessed on earth.

The stars must be made up mostly of hydrogen and contain an immense gravitational pull. The material begins to compress which triggers a process called nuclear fission. This activity resonates energy levels from the hydrogen which makes the star‘s shine.  After millions of years of this, the hydrogen gradually transforms into heavier elements such as helium, oxygen, and carbon. Through chemical bonding, the elements continue to transform with more speed into elements like iron and nickel.

The pressure from the nuclear fission eventually ceases and causes the outer layer of the star to collapse into the center of the star. Springing back from the sudden surge of energy, the star explodes forming neutrons which are then taken control of by the iron group elements. Particles of the iron group elements gain multiple neutrons forming even heavier elements including gold.

When the supernova takes place, its expanding shock waves spread debris through interstellar means. The particles and gasses condense and form into new planets and stars. One of these planets that formed in one particularly massive supernova was earth. However, most of the gold on earth sunk into the core with molten iron. The gold found in the earth's crust came from a devastating meteor shower caused from an another supernova that took place more than 3.8 billion years ago. Over time the gold left by the meteoroids became embedded in the earth's crust by the movement of earth's crust.

Source of Information : Ask About Gold By Michael Ruge
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The Story of Gold

The story of gold is a rather intriguing one that started billions of years ago with a
powerful supernova of a star. The debris which included newly formed gold was carried to earth through meteoroids that were propelled by the means of the explosion's shock wave.

Since most of the gold that was already on earth heated and sunk to the core, the earth's crust was replenished by great meteoroid showers. However, this took place approximately 4 billion years ago and now the gold has become embedded within the Earth's crust due to its constant reshaping.

Due to gold's properties, people have always had a fascination with it. Gold has held value since it's discovery because of its uniqueness as well as it being difficult to obtain.

For more than 7000 years, man has been extracting gold from the earth through various mining
techniques on a global scale. The oldest gold artifacts come from the tombs in Bulgaria dating the foraging of gold back past 4200 BC.

Humans used to barter with gold however, the gold used was inconsistent in terms of weight, purity, and sizes. There was no exact way to measure accurate portions of gold used in the trade for products. However, a vast number of civilizations found both creative and innovative ways to attempt to compensate for this. The Aztecs formed the gold into tiny doll figurines while other cultures liked to wear their wealth such as the Egyptians who would use rings to purchase things.

Soon ancient civilizations found a way to turn gold into an official form of money. In approximately 700 BC the use of gold coins came into play appearing first in Lydia. Then other ancient civilizations started using gold such as India, Greece, Rome, China, and Egypt. In the early 20th century the implementing of gold coins fell into disuse and was replaced with current day currency that mainly consists of paper. For a brief time, the paper currency acted as a claim-check that was interchangeable upon demand for a fixed amount of gold. However, the rules were changed. Gold now stands as an assets class.

Source of Information : Ask About Gold By Michael Ruge
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War and Money

Many people profit from the atrocities of war. Politicians, the government, arms and commodity dealers, civilian contractors and black marketers, yet the banks are the true profiteers of war. Large
banks are deeply interested in war due to the extensive opportunities for enormous profits. As a corporate entity; they hold no allegiance to a nation or its people. A bank holds allegiance only to
money. Big Bankers have outed themselves as elite opportunists, constantly finding ways to
manufacture money, perhaps barely within lawful limits, yet with morals clearly set aside.

Throughout history, America's neutrality has been emphatically questioned due to the practice of powerful banks financing both of the warring parties. They have also been known to favor one side over the other, investing heavily to predict the winner that will most benefit them politically or financially.

No country has the equity on hand to fund an entire war; cost is enormous and instantaneous. This is where the banks have learned it is highly profitable to diversify their portfolio. Many critics consider it a highly immoral practice yet when your only intent is to collect a profit, it makes it easy to turn a blind eye to the underlying principles.

It is common for banks to engage in lending money to governments of opposing sides at high-interest rates, extending credit to commercial companies supplying aircraft and bullets to both parties and
financing the smallest companies right down to the bandages. Once high-interest rates are in place for
friends and foes alike, the government then begins their profit run by collecting income taxes paid by U.S. companies. More importantly, they are now in the position to completely control countries saddled with huge debts from the war, raping them of their natural commodities. Whether they manipulate either side into starting a war is another question entirely, yet you can be sure that when the opportunity arises, they jump at it.

With adequate funding easily available, the war is often prolonged far beyond what would have been normally afforded by the participating countries. Big business is so focused on the shortterm profit stimulation, they forget that in the long term, war is drastically destructive to the people and their economy. Where war is, so is inflation. Prices are high, income taxes increased, living conditions
are worsened, trade is disrupted, wealth is exhausted, economic development is impeded and the prosperity of the working people is acutely undermined. Mayhem ensues and mercenaries are born from ordinary citizens just trying to survive.

The powers that be also fail to take into account, not only the lag of capital and labor diverted from developmental projects dropped upon war commencement, yet also the immense cost to rebuild the intense destruction of farms, factories, and even whole cities. Often, also part of the grisly package is war-induced death from injury, starvation, and plague. Some countries populations have been reduced by as much as 50%. Think of the effect this would have on economic reform.

Source of Information : Ask About Gold By Michael Ruge
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Fractional Lending Explained

Henry Ford once stated, ―It is well enough that people of the nation do not understand our banking and monetary system, for if they did, I believe there would be a revolution before tomorrow morning‖.

The commonly accepted delusion is, it is good for everyone if only a few make the money, as it wends its way down to the blue collar. In reality, the money is wrenched from the calloused hands of the
working class into the already lined pockets of an elite group. Almost all of the money in our economy is created by banks when people take out loans. In other words, money is created from debt. The more loans people take, the more debt there is, the more money there is.

Shockingly, if no one went into debt there would be no money. The most prevalent assumption is that a bank loans out money that it's patrons have already deposited yet instead, they are loaning money that has been created electronically.

The process begins with the government going into debt. They request a large loan (let's say 10 million) from the Fed with an exchange of government bonds as a promise to repay. The ―money‖ is then deposited electronically into their bank account. 1,000,000 is held as reserve funds as required by law and the other 9,000,000 is considered to be excessive reserve funds and can be loaned out at the current interest rate.

Here's where it gets really interesting. Let's say someone borrows the entire 9 million, they will most
likely deposit it to their bank account and the 90%/10% loan/reserve process is repeated. This cycle can technically go on to infinity yet the average mathematical equation suggests that 90,000,000 can be created from the original 10,000,000 borrowed. Money is created by charging people interest to rent the created money by the Fed and banks which then returns to them, effectively further widening the gap between the rich and the poor. Only 3% of the money in circulation is actually represented in paper form. Because of this, the dollar has steadily been devalued 96% since the federal reserve came into existence.

Devaluation then creates inflation of the costs of goods and services. The banks don't want the working public to know that the reason prices of necessities and housing keeps going up, is because they are effectively making money out of nothing. The government, banks and big business‘ further benefit by purchasing any services, products, or assets they need before the money goes into circulation, therefore avoiding higher prices created by inflation. People at the bottom of the economic barrel; rural dwellers, workers on fixed income, people with savings, are hit the hardest. By the time the newly created money filters down to them, prices have risen, their wages have stayed the same and their savings buy them less. Some are even forced to take a loan just to purchase the things they need. Which means they have to go back to the banks. Which means more debt, which means more money for the elite.

This process perpetually redistributes the wealth from the bottom to the top, ever increasing the gulf between rich and poor and leaving most enslaved to debt. You cannot get yourself out of debt by creating more debt. Remember the wise words of Voltaire; all paper money eventually returns to its intrinsic value -zero.

Source of Information : Ask About Gold By Michael Ruge
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